Arjun Main Battle Tank

The Arjun Main Battle Tank is an advanced armored combat vehicle developed by India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to meet the operational needs of the Indian Army. With a strong focus on indigenous manufacturing and cutting-edge technology, the Arjun tank represents a significant stride in India’s armored warfare capabilities. Here’s an in-depth encyclopedia-style entry outlining its key features, development stages, specifications, and armament:

The Arjun Main Battle Tank, designed and developed by DRDO, is a cornerstone of India’s armored warfare capabilities. Its development underscores the nation’s commitment to self-reliance in defense technology, enhancing the Indian Army’s operational effectiveness.

Development Phases:

  1. Prototypes and Development:
  • The initial prototype development began in the 1970s, with extensive testing and modifications over subsequent years.
  • The Arjun’s journey from concept to combat-ready involved several iterations and technical refinements.
  1. Mark-I Variants:
  • Arjun Mark-I featured advanced features such as modular composite armor, fire control system, and improved mobility.
  • The Mark-I version underwent rigorous trials and assessments to ensure it met the Indian Army’s operational requirements.
  1. Arjun Mark-II:
  • The Arjun Mark-II variant featured several enhancements, including improved firepower, mobility, and survivability.
  • The tank’s development incorporated user feedback and lessons learned from the Mark-I variant.

General Characteristics:

  • Crew: 4 (Commander, Gunner, Loader, Driver)
  • Weight: Approx. 68.6 tons
  • Length: 10.638 m (with gun forward)
  • Width: 3.864 m
  • Height: 2.32 m (turret roof)


  • Main Gun: 120 mm rifled gun with a muzzle reference system
  • Secondary Armament:
  • 7.62 mm anti-aircraft machine gun
  • 12.7 mm anti-aircraft machine gun
  • Advanced Fire Control System:
  • Gunner’s Main Sight (GMS) with day/night vision
  • Commander’s Panoramic Sight (CPS) with 360-degree panoramic view
  • Ballistic computer and laser rangefinder


  • Composite Armor: High-hardness steel, composite modular panels for enhanced protection
  • Explosive Reactive Armor (ERA): Added protection against shaped charge ammunition
  • Anti-RPG (Rocket Propelled Grenade) Nets: Minimizes damage from RPG attacks


  • Engine: German MTU 838 Ka-501 1400 HP engine
  • Transmission: Renk HSWL 354 transmission system


  • Maximum Speed: Approx. 70 km/h (on roads)
  • Operational Range: Approx. 200 km
  • Gradient: 30%
  • Trench Crossing: Approx. 3 m
  • Vertical Obstacle: Approx. 0.85 m
  • Fording Depth: Approx. 1.2 m

Firing Capabilities:

  • Main Gun Ammunition: APFSDS (Armor-Piercing Fin-Stabilized Discarding Sabot), HEAT (High-Explosive Anti-Tank), HESH (High-Explosive Squash Head)
  • Fire on the Move: The tank can fire accurately while moving, enhancing battlefield flexibility.

Modernization and Future:

  • Ongoing research and development efforts aim to further enhance the Arjun’s capabilities, addressing operational feedback and incorporating cutting-edge technologies.
  • The Arjun tank program serves as a symbol of India’s strides in indigenous defense manufacturing and armored warfare expertise.

The Arjun Main Battle Tank exemplifies India’s commitment to developing state-of-the-art armored vehicles that align with the country’s strategic defense objectives. With its formidable firepower, advanced protection systems, and mobility, the Arjun is a key asset in India’s armored warfare capabilities, contributing to the nation’s defense readiness.

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